This paper advances an analytic method to analyzing the total affect, each direct and oblique, of disparities by race, ethnicity and gender utilizing structural equation modeling (SEM) and demonstrates its empirical software for adults ages 55-64 throughout a spread of outcomes associated to incapacity, Social Safety Incapacity Insurance coverage (SSDI) purposes, and SSDI participation.

The paper discovered that:

  • Primarily based on survival evaluation, non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics are at increased threat of turning into disabled than non-Hispanic whites, however conditional on being disabled, there isn’t any substantial distinction within the threat of making use of for and receiving SSDI advantages by race and ethnicity.  Men and women appear to observe comparable patterns with respect to their threat of turning into disabled and making use of for and receiving SSDI advantages.
  • Specializing in the direct hyperlink solely and controlling for demographic and socioeconomic elements, we discover that the chance of turning into disabled or making use of for SSDI advantages doesn’t differ by race, ethnicity or gender.  Accounting for each direct and oblique pathways, nevertheless, we discover that every one folks of coloration are considerably extra possible than non-Hispanic whites to develop into disabled and non-Hispanic Blacks usually tend to apply for SSDI advantages.
  • General, the likelihoods of experiencing a brand new incapacity, being disabled, and receiving SSDI advantages are considerably and statistically considerably increased for folks of coloration than for his or her non-Hispanic white friends.  Moreover, non-Hispanic Black older adults have an elevated threat of making use of for and taking on SSDI advantages.
  • In distinction, even accounting for oblique hyperlinks, variations between ladies and men stay restricted, with girls being considerably extra prone to be disabled however much less prone to obtain SSDI advantages.

The coverage implications of the findings are:

  • The applying of SEM methodology can advance SSA’s understanding of the total affect of disparities by race, ethnicity and intercourse on a spread of outcomes and show the extent to which conventional modeling approaches could misrepresent these disparities.


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